by Judy Kautz, OSU Extension Master Gardener
Did you know that one half of households in the United States now grow vegetables? Oklahomans are no exception, and each spring we look with anticipation at all the plants and seeds that are available in our local garden centers. There is nothing that tastes better than a fresh vegetable picked from your own garden and eaten on the spot!
Successful gardening, whether flowers, vegetables or trees, depends on good preparation, and the first step to growing delicious veggies is to test your soil. A healthy vegetable garden requires well-drained, loamy soil that contains plenty of nutrients. Testing your soil will tell you what nutrients it has. Soil tests can be obtained from your local Cooperative Extension Office, and cost only $10. They will provide you with an analysis of how much nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium your soil contains and whether it is acidic or alkaline, its pH. This is important information to have as you prepare your garden beds.
To prepare a soil sample to take to the Cooperative Extension Center, get a clean bucket or pail. Using a spade or shovel, dig from the surface to about six inches and take several samples, about 12 – 16, around the area you want to test. Mix these samples together in your bucket and then put about 3 cups of this soil in a clean container. A clean plastic bag works great. Take your bag of soil to the extension center with your $10. They will send your sample to the Soil Testing Laboratory at OSU, and the results will be mailed to you in approximately two weeks. In those results, they will make recommendations on the amounts of fertilizer to use and any other soil amendments you need to add.
Here are raised bed examples using landscape timbers and edging stones.
If you don’t want to test your soil or garden in a bed in your yard, raised beds are a great alternative. In a raised bed, you can control the soil structure, pH and fertilizer nutrient levels. They are great for areas with poorly drained or tight clay soil, because you can add soil purchased or composted and create a great environment in which to grow your veggies. Other benefits are that you can grow vegetables in a smaller space, and it is easier to water and harvest raised beds.
There are many materials that can be used for a raised bed; redwood, cedar, vinyl, and composites are all good options. Stone, concrete or landscape blocks also make great borders for raised beds, as do bricks. Landscape timbers and old railroad ties will work; if you use railroad ties, make sure they are not oozing black creosote or smell intensely. A group of half barrels is also great, especially for a patio! You could even use a child’s swimming pool, provided you poke holes in it to allow for drainage. Make sure you have a minimum depth of 8 inches of soil, but 10-12 inches is better. You can fill your bed with packaged garden soil or buy garden-ready soil in bulk from one of your local merchants.
Take care when choosing a location for your raised bed; make sure your bed gets at least 6-8 hours of sunshine a day. Locating the bed close to a water source is a must, especially for our hot summers here in Oklahoma. Do not place your bed underneath a tree within its root zone, the spread of the branches. Tree roots will compete with your vegetables or plants for nutrients and moisture.
Railroad ties work for raised beds as long as they are not infused with creosote or other materials.
Preparation of your beds before the growing season is full upon us will ensure you have the best environment to produce the kinds of crops you want. What varieties you choose make a big difference, since you want to grow plants that are best suited to Oklahoma. In upcoming weeks we’ll discuss varieties of vegetables you can grow in Oklahoma!
To see many examples of raised beds for all kinds of plants, visit the Master Gardener Demonstration Gardens at the Cleveland County Fairgrounds, southwest corner adjacent to the gravel parking lot. And for more ideas about gardening and to obtain top quality plants, be sure to attend the Spring Garden Party on April 16 in the demonstration gardens. We will offer how-to classes, activities for kids and the best plants to purchase for your gardens. Also, remember that you can call the County Extension office with questions or submit them online at the Cleveland County Master Gardener website at clevelandcountymastergardeners.org.
Concrete blocks also make great raised beds!
by Judy Kautz, OSU Extension Master Gardener
Spring brings warm weather, daffodils and the promise of tasty veggies and fruits from our gardens. However, it also brings a collection of tasks we should complete as we prepare for summer’s bounty of flowers and food harvest. Here are some items that should be completed as we anticipate the upcoming gardening season.
First, check your soil. Before you start digging, take a handful of soil and squeeze it; if it forms a sticky ball, your soil is too wet to work. If it crumbles, it is ready to till. Working your soil too soon can create hard clods that may remain all season. It is also a good idea to have your soil tested to see if it needs added nutrients. Your local extension center will test your soil for $10 and you should have the results in about 2 weeks. Simply gather soil randomly throughout your yard in a clean bucket; you will need about 2 cups. Place it in a Ziploc baggie and take it to your extension center, fill out a short info sheet that marks the soil as yours, and send it off. The results will tell you how much phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen you have and it will also tell you the pH, how acidic or alkaline it is. Your extension agent will discuss those results with you and make recommendations on what you might need to add in order to obtain the best soil for your garden.
Crumbly soil that is not too wet is perfect for digging and tilling.
If you like cool-weather crops like lettuces, radishes, spinach and beets, now is the time to plant them as they prefer cooler temperatures. Sow your seeds directly in your garden as soon as our nighttime temperatures remain above freezing. The date of expected last frost is April 1st in our area, but remember that two years ago, we had a freeze on April 24th!
Now is the time to plant cool season crops like lettuce and radishes, as they prefer the cooler temperatures of spring.
Now is also the time to prune roses, while most plants are still dormant. However, our recent warmer temperatures these past weeks will certainly change that and encourage new growth. Remove dead branches and trim away crossed branches as well. You can safely cut back the green stems by at least one third, and even more if you really want to stimulate new growth. You can now trim your shrubs like crape myrtles, too, but make sure you do not prune bushes that bloom on old wood. Hydrangeas and lilacs fall in this category, so avoid pruning them until after they bloom.
It is safe to prune your roses down by one third to one half their size to encourage spring growth.
If you want to change your landscaping, now is the time to transplant deciduous trees (those that lose their leaves in winter) and shrubs while they are dormant. Dig a large root ball and plant in a more desirable spot at the same depth as your tree or shrub grew before. Water deeply every few days for the first season. If you have purchased new shrubs and trees, this is the ideal time to plant them too.
This is a perfect time to feed your perennials and roses. Use any balanced commercial fertilizer or compost around your plants and gently work it into the top layer of the soil. Be sure to follow the instructions on the label.
If you have ornamental grasses in your yard, shear them back now – Miscanthus, feather reedgrass, switchgrass, fescue and little bluestream all should be trimmed before new growth begins to emerge. This is also a good time to divide clumps if they’ve become too large or the centers have died out.
Spring holds the promise of new beginnings and new life for our gardens. It is a wonderful time of the year to shed those winter doldrums and prepare for the upcoming growing season!
One final note: while you are deciding what to plant in your garden, mark your calendars for Apr 16th, the annual Garden and Plant Party at the Demonstration Gardens of the Cleveland County Master Gardeners. The gardens are located at the Cleveland County Fairgrounds, 601 E Robinson, Norman, just west of the gravel parking lot. Join us for the plant sale and a day of activities, especially for children, from 9 am to 1:00 pm. We have lots of plants just waiting for you in our greenhouse!
Welcome to Dishing the Garden Dirt!